The principle of operation of a diesel injector is that it sprays fuel into very small droplets that mix with the air in the combustion chamber. This mixture then spontaneously ignites with the help of high pressure and high temperature, resulting in an explosion and further use of energy to propel the engine.
Diesel injectors must be precise and efficient enough to ensure efficient fuel combustion and ensure optimal engine performance. Poor or malfunctioning injectors can lead to poor engine performance, increased emissions, and other vehicle performance problems.
The service life of diesel injectors depends on several factors, such as the quality of the materials used, vehicle operating conditions, engine operating mode and level of care. How long do diesel injectors last? Typically, diesel injectors can go 100,000 to 200,000 km without major problems if you follow the maintenance recommendations and use quality fuel.
If you notice any signs of malfunction, such as rough running of the engine, high fuel consumption, loss of power or emissions of smoke, you should immediately check and possibly replace the injectors or use an injector repair kit to restore them to proper operation.
1. Electrohydraulic injectors
Electrohydraulic injectors are widely used in modern diesel engines, including common rail systems. The basic principle of their operation is to equalize the pressure on the shut-off needle, which allows you to effectively control the fuel supply and ensure an optimal level of performance.
When the injector operates under a certain pressure, fuel is supplied, filling the chambers above and below the needle. At rest, the fuel pressure in these chambers is the same. The needle, located above the nozzle, is held in the closed position by the action of a spring. When the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) sends a signal, the solenoid drain valve opens, allowing fuel from the reservoir above the needle to drain into the reverse line.
This leads to a decrease in fuel pressure above the needle, while the pressure below it remains unchanged. Under the influence of this, the needle rises and opens the nozzle, allowing the fuel to be accurately dosed and cut. This mechanism ensures optimal engine efficiency, improves engine performance and helps reduce emissions. Electrohydraulic injectors are a reliable and efficient solution for modern diesel engine control systems.
2. Piezoelectric injectors
Piezoelectric injectors are the most advanced and modern design found in both petrol and diesel engines and have become a technological marvel in the automotive industry. One of the main advantages of this design is the incredibly high speed, which allows fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber in 2-4 stages.
In these nozzles, a ceramic piezoelectric element, which expands under the influence of an electric current, is responsible for the movement of the needle. This provides extreme precision and fuel control, making them indispensable in modern automotive engines. Note that piezo injectors can withstand the highest pressures - up to 2000 bar, which makes them an ideal choice for high-performance and turbo engines, helping cars achieve high performance and operating efficiency. This technology opens up new opportunities in the automotive world and contributes to the development of cleaner, more fuel-efficient automotive solutions for the future.
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